The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) has launched a new phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), which aims to address new scientific questions in climate change field and provide data support for the scientific goals established by the WCRP Grand Challenges program. This paper reviews the development history of CMIP, introduces the background and organization of CMIP6, provides the description of the CMIP6 DECK experiments and the scientific foci of the 23 CMIP6-endorsed MIPs, briefly describes the CMIP6 models and Chinese contributions. Finally, the authors review the CMIP6 from the perspectives of inheritance and innovation, summarize the issues in the organization and implementation of CMIP6, and discuss the prospects for the future development of CMIP.
Geoengineering is a large-scale deliberate intervention of offsetting the global temperature rise from greenhouse gases. Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) is an important form of geoengineering. In this brief review, we introduce the principle science backgrounds behind CDR, the potential efficacy, feedbacks, and side effects of specific CDR methods, as well as the status of CDR in the Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) scenario studies. Recently the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (CDRMIP) was initiated as part of the CMIP6. As a common framework to assess the potential effects and risks of using CDR to address climate change, CDRMIP provides an important opportunity to better understand how the Earth system responds to human climate perturbations.
Cloud-radiation feedback is considered as one source of large uncertainties in climate simulation. To improve understanding of cloud-climate mechanisms and evaluating cloud processes and cloud feedback in climate models, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) is firstly endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) in 2003. Now, CFMIP has entered its third phase, CFMIP-3. Comparison with its two previous phases, the CFMIP-3 experiments have more types and more specific scientific questions to be addressed. Besides adding model outputs in the CMIP6 DECK and Historical experiments using CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP), the CFMIP-3 experiments include Tier-1 (required) and Tier-2 (optional) types to address 7 cloud-related questions. The CFMIP brings climate modelling, observational and process modelling communities together and provides tools for evaluating and understanding the simulations of clouds and cloud feedbacks in climate models.
Detection and attribution (D&A) of climate change was an important chapter of every assessment report of IPCC. The aim of D&A is to detect externally forced changes, and to assess the relative contributions of anthropogenic and natural forcings to observed climate changes. It provides a comprehensive understanding on how the climate system is affected by human influences. Its conclusions strongly enhance the confidence in our ability to project future climate change. The Detection and Attribution Model Intercomparison Project (DAMIP) is a part of the CMIP6. It contains three tiers of simulations, which cover 14 types of experiment driven by various forcings. This paper overviews the scientific background, experimental design, and involved models in the DAMIP of CMIP6. Remarks on the significance, expected outputs, and opportunity and contribution of China are also provided. We hope this paper can facilitate readers to quickly master the key information and progresses of this project and serve as a guideline for the D&A research using the model-simulated outputs from this project in the future.
Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP) is one of sub-project of the CMIP6, which focuses on the decadal climate prediction, climate predictability and mechanisms of the climate variability based on coupled general circulation models. The DCPP consists of three components, decadal hindcast experiments, decadal forecast experiments and sensitivity experiments for mechanism and predictability of the decadal climate variability. Twenty-one models will participate in the DCPP, including 5 models from China. The DCPP will make efforts towards solving a great number of important scientific questions about climate predictions on the interannual and interdecadal time scales, assessing predictive skill of current climate prediction systems, revealing potential predictabilities, researching formation mechanisms of long-term climate variability and offering prediction productions valuable for scientific researches and social applications.
The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) is an intercomparison project in the CMIP6. FAFMIP has designed five experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater are applied to the surface of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM) in CMIP6, aiming to investigate the uncertainties in simulations of ocean heat uptake, global mean sea level rise due to thermal expansion, and dynamic sea level change due to ocean density and circulation change in response to CO2 forcing by AOGCM.
Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a backup method to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) is one of the key component of the sixth phase of Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6). GeoMIP designed a set of idealized solar geoengineering schemes, including reduction of solar irradiance, injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, injection of sea slat aerosol into marine low cloud, and increase of ocean albedo. Analysis of GeoMIP results improves our understanding of the climate system response to different solar geoengineering approaches and the underlying mechanisms. More climate models from China are encouraged to participate GeoMIP to improve China’s influence on the research of geoengineering as well as international climate negotiation.
Global Monsoons Model Intercomparison Project (GMMIP) is an important participant in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). Firstly, the scientific background of launching the GMMIP is introduced, emphasizing necessity and historic opportunity of this activity. Further, the general ideas of GMMIP experiment design are briefly described, as well as the three experiment tiers, experiment usage and connections with other endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects in CMIP6. Finally, we remark the scientific significance of GMMIP, highlighting its important role in elevating and amplifying the influence of monsoon modelling and research communities in China.
The High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP) is now a CMIP6-endorsed MIPs, which aimed to investigate the climate models’ simulation performance improvements with increased horizontal resolution and also to reduce simulation uncertainties based on muti-model ensemble simulations. Five groups in Chinese modeling community have registered in HighResMIP on CMIP6 GitHub website. In this paper, the scientific background, experimental design and participates of HighResMIP are briefly introduced, to provide a reference for researchers who are interested in this project.
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the CMIP6. OMIP is dedicated to the important CMIP6 science questions of investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. What’s more, OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term projection grand challenges put forward by WCRP (World Climate Research Program). OMIP provides an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice simulations, tracer experiments and interactive biogeochemical experiments forced with common atmospheric data sets to investigate the systematic model biases. Simultaneously, OMIP provides a detailed protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6, and then it helps evaluate, understand, and improve the ocean, sea-ice/tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and Earth system models contributing to CMIP6.
The goal of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to provide a coordinated framework for the paleoclimate modelling and evaluation, to understand the response of climate system to different climate forcings in the past, and to constrain the projection of future climate. PMIP also contributes the improvement of climate models by comparing simulations and understanding the model uncertainties. PMIP is now proceeding to the fourth phase (PMIP4) and further enhances the collaboration with CMIP6. Simulations of five different periods have been designed to address the objectives of CMIP6: the millennium prior to the industrial epoch (past1000); the mid-Holocene, the Last Glacial Maximum; the Last Interglacial; and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period. Besides, sensitivity experiments are designed to access the role of different forcing factors. PMIP4 not only provides a large number of simulations for paleoclimate research, but also collaborates with other CMIP6 Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) by providing necessary variables.
Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) is the primary activity within Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It will provide a new set of emissions and land use scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). ScenarioMIP aims to facilitate a wide range of integrated studies across the climate science, integrated assessment modeling, and impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability communities. This paper will briefly describe ScenarioMIP’s objectives, experimental design and the models participated in. A comment and future outlook will also be given in the end of this paper.
In order to achieve a better understanding of the inter-model uncertainties in the response to volcanic forcing, the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP) has been endorsed to the CMIP6. It consists of a set of idealized volcanic perturbation experiments, which include three main experiments: the first is designed to investigate the short-term (seasonal to interannual) atmospheric response, the second is designed to investigate the long-term (interannual to decadal) response of the coupled climate system, and the third is designed to investigate the climatic response to close successions of volcanic eruptions. VolMIP will provide the same volcanic aerosol data set for each experiment and conduct large simulation ensembles, which allows to investigate the inter-model differences. A set of initial conditions are also defined to assess the different contribution of the internal variability and external forcing to the climatic response.
CMIP6 is being organized by the World Climate Research Project (WCRP). As one of the institutes participating in the CMIP6, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration has three latest version of models to participate in the project through model development in recent years. The models include an Earth system model BCC-ESM1.0 with aerosol and chemistry module, a middle-resolution climate system model BCC-CSM2-MR, and a high-resolution climate model BCC-CSM2-HR. In addition to the DECK and Historical simulations of CMIP6, these models will participate in 10 Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) of CMIP6. This paper gives a basic description of these models and their participation in CMIP6, as well as a simple evaluation of Historical simulation by BCC-CSM2-MR, which provide references for users of the experimental data.
The Coupling Model Intercomparison Program organized by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) has been advanced to CMIP6. The climate system model CAMS-CSM developed by the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences is one of the registered models to participate in CMIP6. In addition to the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK) expreiment and Historical simulation required by CMIP6, CAMS-CSM also plans to participate in four Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) such as Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP), Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP), Global Monsoons Model Intercomparison Project (GMMIP) and High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP). This paper provides a reference for model data users by introducing the basic configuration of CAMS-CSM model, its basic simulation performance, as well as the CMIP6 experiments and MIPs it plans to participate.
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) organized the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). Tsinghua University, collaborated with several institutes in China, released the Community Integrated Earth System Model (CIESM) after many years of devoted model development. Except for the DECK and Historical experiments required by CMIP6, CIESM will also participate in six CMIP6-endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs). Via the introduction of basic information and participation of CIESM in various MIPs, the paper will provide a brief reference for the future users of model outputs from various experiments.
In order to attend the CMIP6 and to further improve the simulation skills of climate model, the climate model team of the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) has developed a new grid-point version of the coupled model, i.e., FGOALS-g. The new coupled model has many improvements in the atmospheric model resolution, ocean grid and the physical processes of the components, and is attending the core experiments of CMIP6 and an ensemble of CMIP6-endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs). Under the CMIP6 external forcings, the simulations of the new model in the pre-industrial control experiment and the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiment are reasonable.
The Coupled Model Intercomparison Programs (CMIP) organized by the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) provides an important platform for the development and assessment of the Earth system model (ESM). At present, CMIP6 is undergoing the experiments, which are the most important tasks of the ESM’s development groups. Based on the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model version 1.0 (FIO-ESM v1.0), which is the first ESM coupled with the ocean surface waves and participated CMIP5, FIO-ESM v2.0 has been frozen and carrying out the CMIP6 experiments. This paper introduces the framework of FIO-ESM v2.0, and four distinctive physical processes, which are wave-induced mixing, air-sea flux induced by stokes drift, heat flux associated with sea spray, and SST diurnal cycle scheme. And the plans of FIO-ESM v2.0 participation in CMIP6 experiments are also introduced.
The Earth System Modeling Center in Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST) has been devoted in the NUIST Earth system model (ESM) development over recent years. The newly developed NUIST-ESM v3 is largely improved in the presentation of boundary layer processes, cumulus convection, microphysics processes, coupling physics and sea ice albedo scheme. As a new participator in the phase six of Coupled Model Comparison Project (CMIP6), NUIST-ESM v3 registered the Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK), Historical experiment and seven CMIP6-endorsed MIPs, such as ScenarioMIP, DAMIP, GMMIP, DCPP, PMIP, VolMIP and GeoMIP. Currently, the DECK and Historical experiment data is ready for submission and the MIPs experiments are in the process.