The policy security system of global climate change adaptation consists of climate change adaptation action plan, safeguard institution, safeguard mechanism, and safeguard legal system. With the increasing emphasis and in-depth research on climate change adaptation, the policy security system construction of global climate change adaptation has become the major material security and spiritual guarantee for the improvement of climate change adaptability. Based on the brief description of global climate change adaptation policies in major regions and countries, including EU, America, Japan, Russia and India, this paper reviews the construction of climate adaptation policy security system in these regions and countries. Finally, good international practices are proposed for strengthening China’s climate change adaptation policies.
In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index system of climate carrying capacity for cities was established from the aspects of the climate natural capacity, city climate stress, and urban coordinated development ability. The climate natural capacity index was calculated using the method of Nemerow index. City climate stress and urban coordinated development ability indexes were calculated using comprehensive evaluation method based on entropy weight. Then the urban climate capacity comprehensive evaluation model was established to quantify the evaluation results. Taking Shanghai city as an example, the climate carrying capacity was analyzed and discussed using the proposed model during the period 2004-2013. The results showed that the assessment system of city carrying capacity is feasible. It could describe spatio-temporal changes of cities, and identify the problems of regional climate carrying capacity in the development and utilization. This assessment system can also provide a reference for the building of an early warning system of climate carrying capacity. The climate carrying capacity of Shanghai city in the studied period was inferior compared with that in the standard year, and was in a state of large fluctuations due to the influence of climate natural capacity.
Taking Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ecological function conservation areas (EFCAs) as a case, priorities were set to climate change adaptation measures based on expert judgment by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that the special funds of climate change of ecological function conservation, supporting projects to feed-animal balance control and the adjustment of industrial structure are the most important measures. Then, preferences were compared between decision makers, decision supporters and scientific researchers. The results showed that the difference is relevant to functions and their specific interest of the stakeholders. It is also proved that AHP is a useful and meaningful tool for preferring adaptation measures in the national climate change adaptation strategies.
Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), wavelet analysis and resemblance analysis methods were used to research the variation of the structure feature of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) mode and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) mode. The spatial similarity coefficients between the Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (SSTA) and the PDO mode, NPGO mode were computed separately. The results show that the spatial field of SSTA was more and more similar to that of the NPGO mode after 1988/1989, and the climate shift had a period of 18 years. Then, the 20-year moving average of the two similarity coefficients show that the latter one was greater than the former after 1984, which meant that the spatial shift of SSTA occurred about 1984. Lastly, the spatial feature of the averaged SSTA of some special periods also show that the structure feature of SSTA became NPGO-like mode from PDO-like mode after the 1980s.
In this study, we assessed and compared the sea surface temperature (SST) trends between offshore China and other sea regions of interest as well as global mean surface temperature based on four SST datasets. The results revealed an enhanced SST response over offshore China during different periods. During the accelerated global warming periods (1980s and 1990s), SST over offshore China shows faster rising trend than the global mean. The most pronounced warming area is located over the East China Sea, with the rising rate up to 0.60℃ per decade, which is 5 times faster than that of the global mean. While during the hiatus period (1998-2014), SST over offshore China exhibits significant cooling trend. The decadal variability of offshore China SST is closely linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The periods with rapid warming (cooling) over offshore China are consistent with the positive (negative) phase of PDO. PDO may affect SST over offshore China through the East Asian Monsoon and Kuroshio Current.
Based on daily minimum temperature data of 45 observation stations in winter in Tianshan Mountains and northern Xinjiang from1961 to 2010, we presented the standards of 45 stations’low temperature day and the definition of regional persistent low temperature events (PLTE), and analyzed its spatial-temporal distribution and variation, further investigated circulation anomaly features of decadal change, large-scale circulation background, affecting system and cold air features on PLTE. The results are as follows. Low temperature day thresholds were elevated distribution pattern from northeast to southwest, minimum thresholds in Junggar Basin and Altay region of northern Xinjiang, with the values of -34℃ to -30℃, -24℃ to -20℃ in the western Yili region and Tianshan Mountains. PLTE appeared 35 times in the past 50 years, the occurrence frequencies are both 0.29 times per year in January and February, 0.14 times per year in December. Low temperature events’duration ranged from 5 d to 25 d, among 16 times over 10 d, 19 times from 5 d to 9 d. PLTE showed significant interannual and decadal decreasing trend, but no significant intensity change. PLTE were caused by large-scale circulation anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere, mainly the meridional circulation anomalies. They can be divided into West Siberian transverse trough type, Central Siberia trough east infalling type, north wind belt and northwest wind belt type and the north ridge-south trough (vortex) type. When cold air from the Arctic or Siberia enters into Xinjiang by super polar, northwest, eastward paths on 500 hPa, northern Xingjiang is controlled by -32℃ cold air and ground Mongolia High dominated in the Eurasia continent, high pressure center of over 1045 hPa locating in the Altay Mountains region, 1035 hPa cold high pressure controlling northern Xinjiang region.
Using daily wind speed data of 61 stations with satellite-based station classification in Anhui province during 1981-2010, urbanization effects and contributions to the trends of annual and seasonal mean wind speed (Wa), maximum wind speed (Wm) and low wind speed (<2 m/s) days (Lwd) were analyzed. Both the annual and seasonal Wa and Wm presented significant decreasing trends, and Lwd showed significant increasing trends in Anhui province during recent 30 years. Especially, all the trends of Wa,Wm and Lwd at urban stations were obviously larger than those at suburban and rural stations, meanwhile, the trends at suburban stations were generally larger than those at rural stations. Due to the acceleration of urbanization in Anhui province after 2000, the differences in both Wa and Lwd between urban stations and rural stations were becoming bigger and bigger. The difference in trend coefficients of Wa between urban stations and rural stations was about -0.10 m/s per decade, and the corresponding urbanization contribution was about 40.0% to the total decreasing trends of annual Wa. For seasonal Wa, the largest contribution appeared in spring. The difference in trend coefficients of Lwd between urban stations and rural stations was about 15.58 d per decade, and the corresponding urbanization contribution was about 46.9% to the total increasing trends of annual Lwd. For seasonal Lwd, the larger contributions mainly appeared in autumn and winter. The effects of urbanization on Wm were generally insignificant.
Using daily temperature data of 46 stations in Anhui province with satellite-based station classification during 1961-2010, annual and seasonal trends of both absolute and relative extreme temperature indices were analyzed. Furthermore, urbanization effects and contributions were also evaluated. The annual maximum of daily maximum temperature (maxTmax) presented insignificant trends, while the annual minimum of daily maximum temperature (minTmax), the annual maximum and minimum of daily minimum temperature (maxTmin and minTmin) showed remarkable increasing trends, especially minTmin. Both warm days and nights presented significantly increasing trends, while cold days and nights showed decreasing trends, however, trends for warm and cold nights were relatively larger. Trends of extreme temperature indices for urban stations were generally more significant than those for rural stations. Urbanization effects had led to a highly significantly increase of maxTmax, maxTmin and minTmin at rates of 0.144, 0.184, and 0.161℃ per decade, with contributions of 100%, 58.8%, and 21.6%, respectively. However, there was no significant urbanization effect for minTmax. Seasonal urbanization effect generally led to increasing trends for absolute extreme indices, which were larger in spring and autumn, while contributions in spring and summer. Urbanization effects induced more significant increasing trends on warm days and nights, and more significant decreasing trends on cold nights, with contributions all above 40%. Contributions for all relative extreme indices were the smallest or insignificant in winter.
Using soil column incubation method, the effect of salt covering (CK, no salt covering; T1; T2; T3 and T4: salt covering with 1, 2, 3 and 4 times amount of salt in soil) on soil respiration was studied with a Li-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system in Balikun Saline Lake. The diurnal variation of soil respiration showed a single peak curve, with the peak value increased with amount of covered salt. The time of peak value showed in 15:00 under T4 treatment, but 17:00 under other treatments. The flux of soil respiration was negative from 0:00 to 6:00. Soil respiration showed a trend that first increase then decrease with incubation time after salt covering. Change of daily average soil respiration rate during incubation time and Q10 value showed an increase trend with amount of covered salt, with daily average soil respiration rate under T4 treatment significantly higher than that under CK treatment. Our study suggested that not only temperature, but also salt covering and its influence on Q10 value should be considered when study saline soil respiration under climate warming condition.
The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission accounting standards for the enterprise is paid much attention by the standard developers all over the world. As the new demands from addressing climate change occurring, some corresponding changes are happening in the GHG emission accounting standardization field. For the international standard, the requirements of accounting and reporting standards on emissions from supply chain of the enterprise are increasing, and the sectorial accounting standards have also come into sight. For the national standard, the GHG emission accounting and reporting standards are more operable with the consideration of the practical situations of existing standards, and measurement bases in the Chinese enterprise and the demands from key-enterprise reporting system and the carbon Emission Trading System in China. Through the comparison of revised ISO 14064-1 standard, ISO 19694 series standards, and GB/T 32150, GB/T 32151 series standards, it is found that all these standards have the quite similar core methods, which could be a good base for the communication and coordination in the future. The differences between these standards include classification of emission sources, data acquisition ways, and some special requirements, which are caused by the differences on scopes and targets of the standards. Although these new changes are conducive to showing the emission characteristics of the enterprises in different markets, regions or sectors, a higher requirement of accounting and reporting on GHG emission is given to the enterprise. It would be recommended for Chinese enterprises to concentrate on the core accounting approach and to establish the basic data collection system. Meanwhile, it would be recommended to notice the differences of these standards’requirements and to build the relevant reporting capacity. The national standard developers should focus on the applicability and operability of the GHG accounting standards, and gradually develop multi-stage standards according to the national GHG emission management policies and measures.
According to survey data of 72 heating enterprises in Shenyang city, the carbon emission of heating enterprises was calculated by using the methodology of IPCC greenhouse gases inventory. The results show that the carbon emission intensity was significantly different in various heating sources during the 151 d heating period. The carbon emission intensity in scattered small boiler room, regional boiler room, combined heat and power generation (CHP), combined heating sources (coal-fired boiler and heat pump), and clean energy heating was 58.25 kg CO2/m2, 53.42 kg CO2/m2, 49.87 kg CO2/m2, 34.49 kg CO2/m2 and 21.58 kg CO2/m2, respectively. Based on the carbon emission intensity of different heating sources and baseline determination methods recommended by clean development mechanism (CDM), six kinds of baseline scenarios were set, including actual emission, historical emission, >40 t/h regional boiler room emission, CHP emission, and the emission from the top 30% and 40% enterprises on the technical level. Through comparing various carbon emission baseline values, combining economic and technological development level, and carbon trading market plan, the carbon emission of the top 40% enterprises on the technical level (46.57 kg CO2/m2) was recommended as the carbon emission baseline of heating industry in 2013 in Shenyang city. The carbon emission baselines from 2014 to 2020 were also forecasted.
In this paper, scenarios are set strictly according to institutional elements of Tianjin Emission Trading Schemes (ETS) pilot, in order to simulate its impacts on economy and environment of Tianjin, and analyze interactions between industries deeply. Results show that carbon emission decreases by 0.62% (1.03 million tons), with equilibrium carbon price of 14.2 yuan per ton. There is a slight fall of GDP by 0.04% (0.62 billion yuan), while GDP elasticity coefficient of carbon emissions is 0.07. Each ton of carbon causes 599 yuan GDP loss. Forty-one industries among 42 are affected and the average effect is -0.068%. Overall, emission reduction effect of Tianjin ETS pilot is obvious, and its negative economic impact is limited.