ISSN 1673-1719
CN 11-5368/P
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  30 July 2014, Volume 10 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Updated Understanding on the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Production and Food Security   Collect
Xie Liyong Li Yue Xu Yuxiu Zhao Xun Song Yanling Jiang Tong Lin Erda
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 235-239.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.001
Abstract ( 1842 )   HTML (   PDF (3220KB) ( 1581 )  
Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was launched in March 2014. This report summarizes the newest peer-reviewed and comprehensive findings from international scientific communities on impacts, sensitivity and vulnerability. The report shows, focusing to food production and food security, the effects of climate change on crop, animals and fishery are evident in most regions of the world. Negative impacts of climate trends have been more common than positive ones. The effects act on not only production process, but also non-production elements, such as food access, utilization, and price stability, which varies among different regions. Studies have documented a large negative sensitivity of crop yields to extreme daytime temperatures. Evidence since AR4 confirms the stimulatory effects of CO2 in most cases and the damaging effects of elevated tropospheric ozone on crop yields. More adaptation is helpful to overcome the negative effect of temperature increasing, and reduce food losses. More observational evidence is needed on the effectiveness of adaptation at all levels of the food system.
The Interpretation of Freshwater Resources in the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC   Collect
Zhai Jianqing Zhan Mingjin Su Buda Jiang Tong
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 240-245.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.002
Abstract ( 1570 )   HTML (   PDF (4001KB) ( 1337 )  
The IPCC Working Group II (WGII) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) reported that freshwater-related risks of climate change increased significantly with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The observed hydrological changes due to climate change were assessed including precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, permafrost, glaciers, stream flow and groundwater etc. Meanwhile, the projected hydrological changes and freshwater-related impacts, vulnerabilities and risks due to climate change were assessed. It is necessary to take adaptive measures and implement risk management that would exploit the positive impacts and impair the negative impacts of climate change.
IPCC AR5 Updated Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Human Well-Beings   Collect
Zhang Cunjie Huang Dapeng Liu Changyi Liu Qiyong
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 246-250.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.003
Abstract ( 2088 )   HTML (   PDF (3279KB) ( 1749 )  
The IPCC WGII AR5 assessed the climate change impacts on human health, human security, and livelihood & poverty. It concludes that climate change has negatively affected human health and security; climate change, climate variability and climate extremes have added extra burden to the poor in the urban and rural areas, increasing climate-related risks. Throughout the 21st century, climate change is projected to further exacerbate health problems that already exist, increase human migration, multiply conflict drivers, cause damages to the key infrastructures and services in many countries, and challenge the territorial integrity of the small island states and countries that own long coastal lines; climate change is projected to slow down economic growth, erode food security, prolong existing and create new poverty traps in urban and rural hotspots, and make poverty reduction more difficult.
Understanding of Studies on Climate Change, Livelihoods and Poverty   Collect
Ma Shiming Liu Lüliu Ma Shanshan
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 251-253.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.004
Abstract ( 1147 )   HTML (   PDF (1817KB) ( 1029 )  
The understanding of studies on climate change, livelihoods and poverty (Chapter 13) in the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC is introduced. Researchers use livelihood lens to assess the interactions between climate change and the multiple dimensions of poverty. It illustrates that climate change, acting as a threat multiplier, adds an additional burden to poor people and their livelihoods. Moreover, climate change may create new groups of poor people. Climate change policy responses reviewed in this chapter often do not benefit poor people.
Understanding of Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability in Urban Areas and Rural Areas   Collect
Liu Lüliu Xu Hongmei Ma Shiming
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 254-259.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.005
Abstract ( 1660 )   HTML (   PDF (3957KB) ( 1445 )  
Since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of IPCC, much evidence and findings of climate impacts on urban areas and rural areas and vulnerability in these areas have occurred, and the understanding of adaptation and risk management has grown. There is a growing body of literature on impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and risk management in both urban and rural areas since AR4. The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) improves the following understandings on these issues. Urban climate change risks, vulnerabilities, and impacts are increasing across the world in urban centers of all sizes, economic conditions and site characteristics. Reducing basic service deficits and building resilient infrastructure systems can significantly reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to climate change, especially for those who are most at risk or vulnerable. Major impacts of climate change in rural areas will be felt through impacts on water supply, food security and agricultural incomes. Rural people in developing countries are subject to multiple non-climate stressors, including underinvestment in agriculture, problems with land and natural resource policy, and processes of environment degradation. Climate policies, such as increasing energy supply from renewable resources, encouraging cultivation of biofuels, or payments under REDD+ project, will have significant secondary impacts, both positive (increasing employment opportunities) and negative (landscape changes, increasing conflicts for scarce resources), in some rural areas.
Understanding of Disaster Risk and the Management Associated with Climate Change in IPCC AR5   Collect
Li Ying Gao Ge Song Lianchun
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 260-267.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.006
Abstract ( 1770 )   HTML (   PDF (5665KB) ( 2056 )  
IPCC WGII AR5 focused on the climate change related impacts of various sectors and regions in the risk and its management. Based on comprehensive analysis and consideration of risk of climate change-related hazards, exposure and vulnerability, it proposed the framework for assessing risk associated with climate change. Risk may not only come from climate change itself, but also from development and the governance process of the human society. The report identified of a variety of emergent risks that were not previously assessed or recognized, summarized eight kinds of key risks, and evaluated climate change related risk levels of five reasons for concern on the different levels of tempreture rise. Due to limitations of adaptation and mitigation, the residual risk is unavoidable in risk management process. The risk of severe, extensive and irreversible impacts of the human and socio-ecological systems will exacerbate when future global temperature rise in excess of 4℃ relative to preindustrial levels.
Projected Risk of Flooding Disaster in China Based on CMIP5 Models   Collect
Xu Ying Zhang Bing Zhou Botao Dong Siyan Yu Li Li Rouke
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 268-275.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.007
Abstract ( 1442 )   HTML (   PDF (4482KB) ( 1377 )  
Based on the simulations from 22 CMIP5 models and in combination with the socio-economic data and terrain elevation data, the spatial distributions of the risk level of flooding-induced disaster, the vulnerability of flooding hazard affected body and the risk of flooding hazard in China respectively during the near term (2016-2035), medium term (2046-2065) and long term (2080-2099) are projected under RCP8.5. The results show that regions with high risk level of flooding hazard are mainly located in southeastern China, and the vulnerability of flood hazard bearing body in eastern China is also high. Under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the high risk of flooding disaster in future would mainly appear in eastern part of Sichuan, major of East China, Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin region of North China. The major capital cities in Northeast China and some parts of Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces as well as some coastal areas in Southeast China would also encounter high incidence of flooding disaster. Compared with the baseline period, 21st century forward, although the occurrence of floods area changes little, the regional strong risk will increase during the end of the 21st century. Due to the coarse resolution of climate models and the methodology for determining weight coefficients, large uncertainty still exists in the projection of the flooding disaster risk.
Improvement in Homogeneity Analysis Method and Update of China Precipitation Data   Collect
Yang Su Li Qingxiang
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 276-281.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.008
Abstract ( 1352 )   HTML (   PDF (4008KB) ( 1057 )  
Based on the version 3.0 basic meteorology historical dataset released by National Meteorological Information Centre (NMIC), China Meteorological Administration, at the end of 2012, inhomogeneity test of annual precipitation series of 2342 stations has been launched using Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) method. The nearby stations with high correlation coefficients with candidate station and high data complement are chosen to construct reference series by correlation coefficient weighted average and first difference method. The results which depend on the reference series calculation method would be cut. Metadata is the most valuable evidence of change points, fortunately NMIC has been collecting historical information of meteorological observation stations over China for several years and a junior version of metadata could be employed in this study. Ninety-eight inhomogeneous stations are found, accounting for 4.2% of all stations. The annual precipitation trends of these inhomogeneous stations during 1960-2009 are distinctly different from their nearby stations. Ratio method is applied to adjust inhomogeneous series and then the space homogeneity is improved, which suggests that the adjustment is efficient.
Characteristic of Winter Wheat Cultivar Shift in Henan Province Under Climate Change   Collect
Sun Qian Huang Yao Ji Xingjie Cheng Lin
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 282-288.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.009
Abstract ( 1448 )   HTML (   PDF (3282KB) ( 871 )  
Based on the data observed at 30 agro-meteorological stations in Henan Province that include the phenological development and grain yield components of winter wheat and meteorological elements over the period of 1981-2010, the changes in the length of growing season, the requirement of accumulated temperature, and the yield components of winter wheat were investigated. A total of 196 cultivars of winter wheat were planted during this period. Correlation analysis and regression were used to perform the investigation. The results show that mean temperature in wheat growing season increased significantly. The increase in vegetative period was more pronounced than in reproductive period. In contrast, precipitation did not show significant trends over the 30 years. Cultivar shift and climate warming shortened the length from emergence (E) to heading (H) significantly with the rate of 2.8-5.9 d/10a, but the days from heading to maturity (M) increased significantly with the rates of 1.3-2.5 d/10a. Nevertheless, the accumulated temperature (>0℃) to complete the developmental phases increased, particularly in the H-M phase. The increase rates were 26-50 ℃?d per decade. The weight of 1000 kernels increased markedly with the extended H-M phase. However, the spikes and kernels per spike were correlated neither with the length nor with the accumulated temperature (>0℃) in the phase of E-M. A further investigation indicated that both the ratios of H-M to E-M in days and in accumulated temperature in southern Henan, and the ratio of H-M to E-M in days in central and northern Henan increased with time. The variability of grain yield in southern Henan was better explained by the ratio in accumulated temperature than in days. In central and northern Henan, the grain yield was positively correlated with the ratio of H-M to E-M in days. The cultivar shift of winter wheat over 1981-2010 in Henan Province was characterized by shortening vegetative period, extending reproductive period and improving the weight of 1000 kernels under climate warming.
PM2.5 and Tropospheric Ozone in China and Pollutant Emission Controlling Integrated Analyses   Collect
Zhang Hua Chen Qi Xie Bing Zhao Shuyun
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 289-296.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.010
Abstract ( 1665 )   HTML (   PDF (4478KB) ( 1339 )  
This work reviewed the observational status of PM2.5 and tropospheric ozone in China firstly; the distribution of the concentration of tropospheric ozone over the globe and China were given based on the satellite observation during the period of 2010-2013. The annual mean values are 29.78 DU and 33.97 DU in the globe and China region, respectively. Then, the distribution of PM2.5 concentration and their seasonal changes in China were simulated by an aerosol chemistry-climate coupled model system, with annual mean value of 0.51×10-8 kg/m3. The contributions from five kinds of aerosols to the simulated PM2.5 concentrations in different seasons were also analyzed. Then, the relations between the emissions of aerosol, greenhouse gases and their precursors and their radiative forcings were illustrated referring to the IPCC AR5. For these relations, the possible effects of controlling ozone precursors and particle matter on the climate were given, of which, the former is not totally clear, while reducing emissions of short lived greenhouse gases and black carbon is a secondary measure for short term (the future 50 years) climate change mitigation. Reducing emission of CO2 is still our main strategy to promise the target of global average surface air temperature rise less than 2℃. The strategies of pollutant emission control for near term and long term are all important for the prospects of both environment protection and climate change mitigation.
Understanding Driving Factors of the U.S. President’s Climate Action Plan   Collect
Liu Liguang Bai Yunzhen
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 297-302.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.011
Abstract ( 1619 )   HTML (   PDF (4401KB) ( 1084 )  
The United States has long been criticized for its rejection of the Kyoto Protocol and failing in the issuance of a national climate change action plan. This situation has been changed in President Obama’s second term. In June 2013, Obama Administration promulgated The President’s Climate Action Plan, which is regarded as the most comprehensive national plan at the federal level to address climate challenge. By summarizing main contents of the action plan, this paper identifies key factors that have driven the policy development from the domestic and international perspectives. It concludes that the adoption of the action plan contributes to the integration of administrative resources, the revision of national climate strategy, and the enhancement of its political impacts. Besides, the event may also help the U.S. reverse the disadvantageous position and reshuffle it as a new leader in the global climate negotiations.
Pause for Thought   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 303-306.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.012
Abstract ( 999 )   HTML (   PDF (2390KB) ( 1131 )  
Challenges in Climate Science   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 306-309.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.013
Abstract ( 1089 )   HTML (   PDF (2876KB) ( 958 )  
Carbon Cycle in Earth System Models and Its Detection   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2014, 10 (4): 310-312.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2014.04.014
Abstract ( 1118 )   HTML (   PDF (1901KB) ( 849 )  
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