ISSN 1673-1719
CN 11-5368/P
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  30 September 2012, Volume 8 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Surface Air Temperature Variability and Its Relationship with Altitude & Latitude over the Tibetan Plateau in 1981-2010   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 313-319.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.001
Abstract ( 3353 )   HTML (   PDF (4033KB) ( 1402 )  
Based on the high-quality and homogenized surface station meteorological data over the Tibetan Plateau, surface air temperature variability characteristics were analyzed in this high-elevation area during 1981-2010. The results show that, the Tibetan Plateau on the whole experienced remarkable warming, and the station averaged temperature trend magnitude was 0.40℃/10a for the annual mean, with higher temperature increasing rate in winter and spring, followed by autumn and summer. The temperature in the Three-River Headwaters region, central-western Tibet and northern Qinghai exhibited the most significant rising trends. The altitude dependency in annual, winter, spring and autumn average temperature over the Tibetan Plateau were confirmed during the research period, and station temperature trend magnitude generally increased by 0.1℃/10a for the annual mean with station elevation rising by 1000 m, with more prominent altitude dependency during the winter season. While the temperature trend magnitude in summer showed distinct latitude gradient, and there was a clear signal of latitude dependency for the temperature trend magnitude in summer, with temperature trend magnitude increasing by 0.33℃/10a with 10°increase for station latitude.
Aridity Pattern of Tibetan Plateau and Its Influential Factors in 2001-2010   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 320-326.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.002
Abstract ( 2643 )   HTML (   PDF (4237KB) ( 1293 )  
The RFE2.0 model, Penman-Monteith model and the aridity index were applied to evaluate the spatial pattern of dry-wet climate of the Tibetan Plateau in the growing season (May-Sep.) of 2001-2010, and influential factors for aridity pattern were also analyzed. The results show that (1) the arid and semi-arid climate zone mainly in the central and central-north parts of the plateau accounted for 67% of the total area of the Tibetan Plateau; (2) the south and southeast parts of the plateau, accounting for 25% of the total area, showed a drying trend from 2001 to 2010, and overall the degree of aridity in northern part was gradually reduced; (3) precipitation was the dominant factor leading to the regional difference of aridity, and the aridity index was more sensitive to potential evapotranspiration than to mean temperature and precipitation.
Lake Ice and Its Effect Factors in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 327-333.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.003
Abstract ( 2924 )   HTML (   PDF (4104KB) ( 1341 )  
Lake ice is a good indicator of climate change. In order to analyse the impact of climate on lake ice, we use in situ data as well as remote sensing images to determine the dates of freeze-up and break-up, thickness of lake ice of the Nam Co (2000 km2) and Baima Nam Co (1.45 km2 ) in the Tibetan Plateau from 2006 to 2011. Combined with meteorological parameters, we found that lake ice in Nam Co is mainly influenced by air temperature, and wind speed also plays an important role in this process. Date of freeze-up and break-up for Nam Co is in February and mid-May, respectively, with an average of 90 days for freeze-up period. Lake ice exhibits relatively larger variability in Baima Nam Co with an average of 124 days for freeze-up period. There is a close relationship between freeze-up period and the negative accumulated temperature. Maximum thickness of the lake ice in the Nam Co occurs in March ranging 58-65 cm.
Lake Level Fluctuations and Environmental Changes Reflected by Ostracods of Pumayum Co on Tibetan Plateau Since Middle-Late Holocene   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 334-341.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.004
Abstract ( 2408 )   HTML (   PDF (4500KB) ( 998 )  
The Pumayum Co is in the Indian monsoon rain shadow zone of the Tibetan Himalaya ranges. It is mainly supplied by glacial melting water, and sensitive to climatic changes. According to the lake’s isobath distribution and transportation routes of the inputting rivers, we collected and analyzed ostracods of surface sediments and water indices from 1 to 62 m water depth in different areas. Our results have shown that there are 7 genera and 9 species ostracods in surface sediments of Pumayum Co. Their distributions are mainly influenced by lake water depth, pH, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Water depth is the most important environmental variable to dominate ostracods distribution through the Dentrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis. An ostracods-water depth transfer function with high precision has been built by using the weighted averaging partial least squares regression and calibration model. The transfer function has been applied to analyze ostracods of a 72 cm long gravity core and a historical lake water depth sequence has been reconstructed. We have compared the lake level fluctuations with TOC, TIC, grain-size of the core sediments. The results showed that the environmental changes since 6.0 kaBP in Pumayum Co area could be divided into 3 stages: a warm-cool period with a shallow lake level from 6.0 to 4.3 kaBP, a warm period with a fluctuated lake level from 4.3 to 2.0 kaBP, and a warm period with expanding lake area from 2.0 kaBP to present.
Estimation of Tailan River Discharge in the Tianshan Mountains in the 21st Century   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 342-349.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.005
Abstract ( 2942 )   HTML (   PDF (5137KB) ( 1064 )  
The impact of climate change on local discharge is investigated in a glacierized high mountain catchment — the Tailan River basin in Tianshan Mountain region. Based on the hydrological and meteorological records at Tailan hydrologic station during 2003-2005, the optimum parameters in HBV model are obtained. Tailan River discharge is projected in the middle (2041-2060) and the end (2081-2100) of the 21st century, based on downscaling of RegCM3 under SRES A1B scenario and three scales of deglaciation. The results show that surface air temperature will significantly increase and there is no obvious change in precipitation in Tailan River basin in the two future periods. Three scenarios of glacier shrinkages are proposed at 15%, 20% and 25% in the middle, and 20%, 30%, 40% in the end of the 21st century, respectively. The discharge in Tailan River basin will increase under the glacier shrinkages, relative to the base period (1981-2000). In detail, the minimum increase in discharge will arrive at 17.3% and 18.6% in the middle and the end of the century, respectively. The largest ones will arrive at 45.9% and 66.0%. A moderate increase in discharge will be 28.9% and 41.5% estimated by the HBV model coupled with RegCM3. The seasonal discharge in the two future periods shows the same variation as the base period. The discharge will quickly increase in May in the future two periods. The discharge peak will occur in July in the middle of this century and August in the end of this century. It can be concluded that climate warming and the induced glacier shrinkage will increase the runoff amount, and will finally result in the allocation of the water resources in the catchment.
Evaluation of Runoff from Koxkar Glacier Basin, Tianshan Mountains, China   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 350-356.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.006
Abstract ( 2897 )   HTML (   PDF (4492KB) ( 1070 )  
Glacier and snowmelt water are precious resource for inland district in Northwest China.This paper applied the snowmelt runoff model (SRM) in the Koxkar glacier basin, southwestern Tianshan Mountains in China. Based on the field observation and MODIS snow cover product over the research basin, the parameters of the SRM were determined. The degree-day factor is very sensitive and important in the model, therefore this parameter was calibrated monthly by the runoff data in 2007 and 2008. For 2005 and 2006, the model result is acceptable compared with SRM model results applied in 80 catchments for 25 countries. Hence the model is suitable for the glacier cover basin. The response sensitivity of basin runoff to climate change has been done. Temperature is the control factor. Under the climate background of 1℃, 2℃ and 4℃ temperature rising, the runoff of Mar.-May increases by 48%, 155% and 224% respectively, and the runoff of May-Oct. increases by 30%, 77% and 104%. The runoff process of the basin also changes under the increasing temperature of 4℃and precipitation of 20%, the peak time of snowmelt runoff shifts from middle May to late April, and the peak of snowmelt runoff increases from 6 m3/s to 17 m3/s, and the peak of glacier runoff increases from 14 m3/s to 28 m3/s.
Modeling the Sensitivity of Meltwater Runoff of Tuomuer-Type Glacier to Climate Changes   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 357-363.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.007
Abstract ( 2659 )   HTML (   PDF (4151KB) ( 862 )  
Based on the degree-day method, this paper established a simple distributed model to estimate the glacial runoff of a Tuomuer-type glacier. Considering the meltwater generations from snow, ice, debris-cover and ice-cliff of complex glacial underlying surface, the model demonstrates a robust capability to capture the glacial runoff variability. We set up a series of climatic conditions with changing surface air temperatures and precipitation to test the sensitivity of meltwater runoff to climate change. The results show that the changes in temperature yield great variations in meltwater runoff. A rising of 1℃ in temperature will lead to a runoff rising by 22.5%, while an increase of 2℃ will cause a meltwater discharge increase by 45.0%. On the contrary, a decline of temperatures by 1℃ and 2℃ will result in a runoff discharge dropping by 20.6% and 37.6%, respectively. Comparatively, changes in precipitation have weak influences on the glacial runoff.
Distribution and Variation of Snow Cover in China   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 364-371.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.008
Abstract ( 2503 )   HTML (   PDF (4848KB) ( 1413 )  
New snow cover products were produced by the combined using of Aqua and Terra MODIS snow cover products in 2001-2010. Then the distribution and variation of snow cover over the three major snow-covered regions in China were studied. The outcome shows that Xinjiang region’s snow cover is more stable than Northeast China-Inner Mongolia region’s and Tibetan Plateau’s. The corresponding stable indices of snow cover over the three regions are 0.58, 0.38 and 0.29, respectively. The seasonal snow-covered areas in different month were also studied, which shows that in Xinjiang and Northeast China, the largest snow-covered area appeared in January, and the smallest in July and August. In Tibetan Plateau, the largest snow-covered area appeared in November, after then the area reduced gradually till April, afterwards quickly till July and August. The yearly stable snow-covered area has not significantly changed over three major snow-covered regions and entire China since 2002.
National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory Development in the Context of International Climate Negotiation   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 372-377.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.009
Abstract ( 3205 )   HTML (   PDF (4369KB) ( 1186 )  
Based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”, the UNFCCC has different requirements on national Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories submitted by Annex I and Non-Annex I parties. Since 2007, transparency of mitigation actions of developing countries, and submission frequency of national communication cored on national inventory international consultation and analysis have become one of the key issues in climate negotiation. Relevant responsibility of developing countries showed an increasing trend. Through the analysis on these different requirements, particularly on technical review system for national inventories accepted by developed countries, and on current situation of China’s inventory development, this paper identifies the challenges faced by China and puts forward corresponding countermeasures.
Introduction of CMIP5 Experiments Carried out by BCC Climate System Model   Collect
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 378-382.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.010
Abstract ( 2577 )   HTML (   PDF (2785KB) ( 1501 )  
Climate Change Commitments   Collect
Luo Yong Zhao Zongci
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 383-384.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.011
Abstract ( 2195 )   HTML (   PDF (1410KB) ( 1271 )  
Warm Oceans and Cold Continents   Collect
Luo Yong Zhao Zongci
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 385-387.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.012
Abstract ( 2218 )   HTML (   PDF (1673KB) ( 1298 )  
Uncertainties in Global Warming Projection   Collect
Luo Yong Zhao Zongci
Climate Change Research. 2012, 8 (5): 387-390.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1719.2012.05.013
Abstract ( 2140 )   HTML (   PDF (2101KB) ( 2145 )  
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