Climate Change Research ›› 2023, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (1): 116-126.doi: 10.12006/j.issn.1673-1719.2022.119

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The process of Germany energiewende and its enlightenment to China

LI Pin1,2(), XIE Xiao-Min3, HUANG Zhen3()   

  1. 1 China Institute of Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
    2 School of International and Public Affairs, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
    3 Carbon Neutral Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
  • Received:2022-05-18 Revised:2022-09-03 Online:2023-01-30 Published:2022-10-31
  • Contact: HUANG Zhen;


Germany is a pioneer in the global energy transition. Both China and Germany have the characteristics of “rich coal, poor oil and little gas” resource endowment, high dependence of oil and natural gas on foreign countries, and uneven energy demand and distribution. Summarizing the experience and lessons from the energy transition process of Germany is of great significance for China to promote energy transition and achieve the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals.

This paper introduces the evolution of electricity structure in China and Germany, elaborates the mechanism of energiewende in China and Germany, and analyzes the experience of Germany power system flexibility regulation taking March 19, 2022 as an example. Research shows that the sound legal system provides an important guarantee for Germany energy transformation, the German coal commission and relevant financial support have effectively solved relative problems in the process of coal to renewable, the liberalized power market is a prerequisite for developing a new power system with renewable energy as the main body, accurate prediction and management of wind and photovoltaic power generation are the key to renewable energy consumption, coal power and the interconnected European grid are important guarantees to ensure the stability of power supply in Germany, the overly aggressive strategy of removing coal and denuclearization are important reasons for the current German energy crisis.

In view of this, based on the experience of Germany’s energy transition and the lessons of the 2022 Germany energy crisis, this paper draws the following inspirations: adhere to the primary goal of energy security, vigorously develop new energy. Accelerate the construction of “double carbon” legal system to provide legal guarantee for promoting energy transformation. Continuously promote the reform of the power market and provide strong support for the construction of a new power system. Strengthen the accurate prediction and management of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, and improve the consumption level of wind power and photovoltaic power. Strengthen international cooperation and promote energy transformation in a coordinated manner.

Key words: Carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, Germany energiewende, Electricity prices, Renewable power, Flexibility

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