Climate Change Research ›› 2022, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (2): 230-239.doi: 10.12006/j.issn.1673-1719.2021.185

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Updates of Nationally Determined Contributions:progress, characteristics and impacts on global climate governance

FAN Xing(), GAO Xiang()   

  1. National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation, Beijing 100035, China
  • Received:2021-08-23 Revised:2021-10-03 Online:2022-03-30 Published:2021-12-24
  • Contact: GAO Xiang;


Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) is the core central arrangement of Paris Agreement, which reflects the evolution of global climate governance mode from “top-down” to “bottom-up”. 92 communicated or updated NDC by July 1, 2021 were analyzed with comparing method in this research. Seven types of updating patterns were found: increasing the values of quantitative mitigation targets, adjusting the types and coverage of mitigation targets, adding adaptive goals and policies strategy, increasing the 2050 carbon-neutral vision, proactively applying NDC information and accounting guidance, reporting the progress of NDC implementation, supplementing the policy and measures for achieving the goals. It is found that the updated NDCs in some countries have showed some problems that may affect the effectiveness of global climate governance, including increasing the target number but the actual mitigation efforts is regressing, proposing the long-term target to avoid the enhancement of the near-future ambition for target and implementation, and insufficient financial support for NDC implementation, etc. Global climate governance should respect different updating patterns of NDC, to consolidate the “bottom-up" arrangement of the Paris Agreement, and establish a comprehensive and reasonable “ambition view” with enhancing ambition not only on the target, but also on implementation and support.

Key words: Paris Agreement, Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), Implementation of treaty, Level of ambition, Global climate governance

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