气候变化研究进展

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中国60城市站1901—2019年日降水数据集的构建

战云健1,陈东辉1,廖捷1,鞠晓慧1,赵煜飞1,任国玉2,3   

  1. 1中国气象局国家气象信息中心,北京 100081;
    2中国气象局国家气候中心,北京 100081;
    3 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院,武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2022-01-11 修回日期:2022-02-24 出版日期:2022-04-29 发布日期:2022-04-29
  • 通讯作者: 陈东辉
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划“不同温升情景下区域气象灾害风险预估”;“国家气象科学数据中心建设”专项资金;国家重点科技研发计划项目“全球变化及应对”重点专项

Construction of a daily precipitation dataset of 60 city stations in China for the period 1901?2019

ZHAN Yun-Jian1, CHEN Dong-Hui1, LIAO Jie1, JU Xiao-Hui1, ZHAO Yu-Fei1, REN Guo-Yu2, 3   

  1. 1 National Meteorological Information Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;
    2 National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China;
    3 School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2022-01-11 Revised:2022-02-24 Online:2022-04-29 Published:2022-04-29

摘要: 近年来中国大陆区域降水的极端化问题得到学术界的广泛关注,有关研究也获得了大量成果。但是,目前国内外常用的高分辨率降水资料序列多从1951年左右开始,普遍缺少20世纪早期中国大陆区域的逐日降水资料,对于近一百多年中国极端降水变化特征及其机理,目前还不清楚。基于多来源的1901—1950年原始观测报表数字化逐日降水资料,补充先前未录入的“无降水”和缺测数据,研发质量控制方案并开展质量控制,补充录入检出的缺失和错误数据并再次质控,结合1951年以来的现代降水日值资料,建立中国大陆60个城市站1901—2019年降水日值数据集。数据集评估结果显示,早期中国东部地区的台站较为密集,数据完整性和正确性较好,但中国西部台站的数量少且完整性和正确性偏低。本数据集构建的年总降水量累积值序列与已有的月降水量数据基本一致。基于该数据集,研究发现重庆站近百年来的降水未出现显著的趋势性变化。该数据集使后续分析研究中国大陆区域内极端降水的百年尺度长期变化特征成为可能。

关键词: 观测数据, 逐日降水, 百年序列, 极端降水, 中国

Abstract: In recent years, the change of extreme precipitation in Mainland China has received extensive attention, and related research has obtained a lot of results. However, the high-resolution precipitation data from the well-known datasets worldwide generally start around 1951 at present, lacking daily precipitation data in Mainland China in the early 20th century, so the characteristics and mechanism of extreme precipitation changes throughout Mainland China in the past 100 years are still unclear. Based on multiple sources of digital daily precipitation data from 1901 to 1950, through supplementing the previously unrecorded “no precipitation” and missing data, developing the quality control plans and carry out quality control work, filling in some missing and erroneous data, and combining the modern daily precipitation data since 1951, a dataset of daily precipitation was established for the past 119 years (1901?2019) of 60 city stations in Mainland China. The assessment results show that the stations in the eastern part of China are relatively dense, and the data integrity and correctness are better, but there are only a few stations in Western China and the integrity is low. The accumulated annual precipitation time series constructed by the dataset are basically consistent with the existing monthly precipitation datasets. Based on this dataset, it is found that there is no significant trend in precipitation and extreme precipitation at Chongqing station during the past 119 years, and the centennial long-term change characteristics of extreme precipitation in Mainland China can be further analyzed by using this dataset.

Key words: Observed data, Daily precipitation, Hundred-year time series, Extreme precipitation, China

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