气候变化研究进展

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欧盟减排《责任分担条例》修正案分析与启示

刘季熠,张旖尘,张东雨,付琳,曹颖   

  1. 国家应对气候变化战略研究与国际合作中心,北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-02 修回日期:2022-04-01 出版日期:2022-05-27 发布日期:2022-05-27
  • 通讯作者: 刘季熠

Analysis and Enlightenment of the Latest European Effort Sharing Regulation

LIU Ji-Yi, ZHANG Yi-Chen, ZHANG Dong-Yu, FU Lin, CAO Ying   

  1. National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation (NCSC), Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2022-03-02 Revised:2022-04-01 Online:2022-05-27 Published:2022-05-27
  • Contact: Jiyi LIU

摘要: 欧盟自1997年起就如何通过市场和行政手段“双轮驱动”控制碳排放总量进行不断探索,并逐步建立了较为成熟的碳排放交易体系及减排责任分担机制,已经取得了良好的减排效果。文中梳理分析《责任分担条例》修正案中关于成员国减排目标更新的内容、目标分配的原则与方法、灵活性机制,归纳了欧盟采用行政手段控制碳排放交易系统未涉及部门的温室气体排放的经验,并对中国如何构建充分考虑市场手段和行政手段的CO2排放总量控制制度提出政策建议。

关键词: 欧盟气候政策, 责任分担条例, 总量控制, 排放目标分配

Abstract: The European Union (EU) has continuously explored how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the combination of carbon pricing and mandatory regulation since 1997. It has gradually established a relatively mature policy framework which includes Emission Trading System (ETS) and Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR). Over the last decade, China has made significant progress in controlling greenhouse gas emissions through ETS. It is reported that China’s national-wide carbon market was launched in 2021, while regulations that aim to bind emissions from non-traded sectors are still absent. Therefore, learning the EU’s experience in setting and assigning emissions targets would be helpful for China in establishing a coherent framework for limiting the greenhouse gas emissions across all economic sectors. This paper primarily focuses on explaining and analyzing the updated EU-wide reduction target of the ESR sectors and how target would be distributed to specific member states, with the aim of summarizing the EU’s experience in controlling greenhouse gas emissions of non-ETS sectors. The coordination between ESR and other existing policies, namely the flexibility of ETS and LULUCF should also be demonstrated. Suggestions such as gradually establishing an overarching system which involves ETS as well as legally-binding emissions targets, for controlling the aggregate carbon emissions would be proposed in the end.

Key words: European Union climate policy, Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR), Absolute carbon emissions control, Emission target allocation

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