Based on the development history of the typical international carbon market, this study established an evaluation index system composed of 32 sub-indicators, measured from the four dimensions of political appeal, decision-making environment, economic base, and market foundation. In depth analysis is conducted on European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), Western Climate Initiative (WCI) etc., in order to summarize the common criteria for different types of international carbon markets and find out which type of market is most suitable for China. The establishment of a cross-border coalition-based carbon market usually considers three key points: close economic links, high cost of abatement in individual regions, and proximity of geographical locations. The establishment of national carbon markets usually takes into consideration the national mandatory emission reduction responsibilities, strong demand for energy structure transformation, and stable national legislation protection. The establishment of regional carbon markets usually includes conditions such as strong regional emission reduction requirements and lack of national legislation of emission rights. The prerequisites for the establishment of industry-based carbon markets include four characteristics: high concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, protection of industrial competitiveness, increases in demand of key emission industries, and solid foundation for industrial emission data. Therefore, this study proposes that China’s carbon market development should consider combination of industry-based and cross-border coalition-based carbon markets, further improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy system, accelerate the collection of local GHG emission inventory data, and strengthen local capacity building so as to achieve the dual goals of GHG emission reduction and industrial restructuring and upgrading through the carbon market.
易兰,贺倩,李朝鹏,杨历. 碳市场建设路径研究：国际经验及对中国的启示[J]. 气候变化研究进展, 2019, 15(3): 232-245.
Lan YI,Qian HE,Zhao-Peng LI,Li YANG. Research on the pathways of carbon market development: international experiences and implications for China. Climate Change Research, 2019, 15(3): 232-245.
Du L . An analysis of the causes, effects, and countermeasures of the adjustment of U.S. climate change policy[J]. China Soft Science, 2014 ( 4):5-13 (in Chinese)
Hanemann W M . How California came to pass AB 32, the global warming solutions act of 2006 [R]. UC Berkely CUDARE Working Paper, 2007
Manley B . Impact of the New Zealand emissions trading scheme on forest valuation[J]. Forest Policy & Economics, 2012,14(1):83-89
Capros P, Manzos L . The economic effects of EU-wide industry-level emission trading to reduce greenhouse gases: results from PRIMES energy systems model[J]. Environmental Policy Collection, 2000,5(1):1-19
Murray B C, Maniloff P T . Why have greenhouse emissions in RGGI states declined? An econometric attribution to economic, energy market, and policy factors[J]. Energy Economics, 2015,51(4):581-589
Thurbon E, Kim S Y . Developmental environmentalism: explaining South Korea’s ambitious pursuit of green growth[J]. Politics & Society, 2015,43(2):438-452
Massetti E, Tavoni M . A developing Asia emission trading scheme (Asia ETS)[J]. Energy Economics, 2012,34(2):S436-S443
Wei B X, Jie X W . Ideas and countermeasures for the construction of the regional carbonmarket in the Yangtze River Delta based on international experience in carbon trading[J]. Management World, 2012, ( 2):175-176 (in Chinese)
Liu Y, Cai S F, Wang Y , et al. Comparative analysis of provincial and regional carbon markets: based on China’s multi-regional general equilibrium model TermCO2[J]. Finance and Trade Economy, 2013 ( 11):117-127 (in Chinese)
Chen D H, Pan Y C, Wu C Y . Study on marginal abatement costs and regional differences of carbon dioxide in China[J]. China Population, Resources and Environment, 2016,26(10):86-93 (in Chinese)
SongY Z, Liu T S, Li Yin , et al . Region division of China’s carbon market based on the provincial/municipal carbon intensity[J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2017,164:1312-1323
Cui L B, Fan Y, Zhu L , et al. How will the emissions trading scheme save cost for achieving China’s 2020 carbon intensity reduction target?[J]. Applied Energy, 2014,136(12):1043-1052
Solomon S. IPCC (2007): climate change the physical science basis [C]// AGU Fall Meeting. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2007: 123-124
Wu J, Wang S Q, Wang Z . The evolution course of the world’s leading national climate negotiating position and future target analysis[J]. Climate Change Research, 2016,12(3):202-216 (in Chinese)
Weng Q Q . Climate diplomacy discourse of metaphor and identity building:in Britain, Canada and China on various climate conference speech as an example[J]. Contemporary Asia-Pacific, 2013 ( 5):139-156, 160 (in Chinese)